"It doesn't help to fight crime to put people in prison who are innocent."

- Stephen Breyer

Crime is the start of criminal justice. The commission of crimes is the entire reason criminal justice laws exist. Few topics capture the imagination like crime. In these pages, we explore crime and criminal behavior in all its facets, from the theoretical to the actual to entertainment and facts.

Crime has been an issue negatively impacting justice for humans since the founding of the first cities. The Code of Hammurabi is one of the oldest law codes; in that document are numerous, specific penalties for any manner of serious and less serious crimes. The fact that specific laws existed indicates the specific crimes already existed.

Case-by-Case: Defense of Self and Home

By cjoakes | March 26, 2020

By C J Oakes The defense of self and home has been considered for centuries to be common law deserving or respect and adherence. Spanning Continents and Nations, this common law concept that a person ought to be secure in their home or person has withstood many tests.  English common law forms the basis for […]

Rights and Wrong

By cjoakes | March 26, 2020

By C J Oakes In the United States of America every citizen has rights.  Well-known are the rights of a speedy trial, by an impartial jury of peers, counsel for defense, and silence.  Over the course of American judicial history these rights and others have been tested repeatedly.  One of the toughest issues facing society […]

Criminal Procedure and the Bill of Rights

By cjoakes | March 26, 2020

By C J Oakes Reasoning on Rights The 10th Amendment reads, “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.” Because once the collection of rights were ratified, these would be encompassed into the body of the document, […]

The Cause of Crime is Elementary Dear Watson

By cjoakes | March 26, 2020

by C J Oakes The social sciences developed in the 18th century as a natural consequence of a growing industrial society.  As cities grew, crime increased.  In response to the growing need for law and order, Sir Robert Peel convinced Parliament to establish the London Metropolitan Police in 1829 (Villiers, 2006).  About the same time, many of the concepts and […]

Vice is Nice for Organized Crime

By cjoakes | March 26, 2020

C. J. Oakes The Issue: One of the biggest revenue-generating tools for Organized Crime is Vice. Thus, Vice is Nice for Organized Crime, but not so much the Criminal Justice System. The Essay: Vice is Nice for Organized Crime As long as there have been laws there have been people circumventing the laws to their advantage; […]

Placing a Lock on Organized Crime

By cjoakes | March 26, 2020

By C. J. Oakes The Issue: Organized Crime has grown powerful and governments appear impotent to put a stop to it. Yet, the solution is really quite simple. Take away their money. Operation Keyhole:  Placing a Lock on Organized Crime by Drying Revenue Streams When considering the difference between coin, currency, check, and credit card […]

One ‘Best’ Theory for Organized Crime

By cjoakes | March 26, 2020

By C J Oakes, L. Gunsallus, H. James, & R. Hodge.  Is there one ‘Best’ Theory for organized crime? Theories abound from the Alien Conspiracy to the Bureaucratic Model to the Patron-Client theory with plenty in between. In this collaborative essay, the team argues that the Alien Conspiracy Theory provides the best way to identify the causes and […]

Define to Defeat Organized Crime

By cjoakes | March 25, 2020

By C. J. Oakes The Issue: In order to defeat Organized Crime, a definition common to all in the criminal justice system must be developed.  The Essay: Define to Defeat Organized Crime Any war consists of simply two sides; the battle between organized crime and the criminal justice system is no different.  In the Second Century […]

The Legal Limitations in Combating Organized Crime

By cjoakes | March 25, 2020

By C J Oakes The Issue: One of the biggest problems in combatting organized crime is the law itself. The Essay:  The Legal Limitations in Combating Organized Crime In understanding the legal limits of combatting organized crime, we must first agree on what constitutes organized crime. There are many definitions which have been promoted over […]

Five Globalized Crimes of the Times

By cjoakes | March 25, 2020

By C. J Oakes Issue: Organized crime groups offer more than simply drug to their clients. As with any business, organized crime groups have diversified with serious implications for both U.S. and International police agencies. Abstract As globalism connects the world more closely, criminal organizations are finding innovative ways to reap enormous profits.  Organized crime […]

Types of Crimes

The purpose of this section is to help students of criminal justice and law gain an understanding and appreciation for the various criminal offenses their clients may face. We will be including information related to cases.

Crime Theories

As long as there have been crimes, there have been philosophers crafting theories of the behavior. What is the purpose of crime theory and how can it help students of criminal justice law? What are the elements of a crime?

Crime History


Crime is recorded in the earliest records of history. Humanity, it seems, is built upon the clash between the forces of good and forces of bad. History does not judge between the two, but presents the facts. Let the reader decide which is which.

Crime in Literature


As long as there has been literature, someone has been writing about crime and criminals in society. Of course, the definitions of both terms change throughout, demonstrating the fluid nature of justice.

Crime Prevention


We shall attempt to present crime prevention techniques for a variety of scenarios and situations. Ideally, any scenario someone worldwide may daily face. (We may need the help of readers here.)

Victims of Crime


We seldom hear about the victims of crime. This is to be expected. Victims generally like to forget the event, which means staying away from media and interviews. Still, some are willing to tell their stories and when possible, we will include these here.

Crime Timelines


The publisher of this website loves timelines. So expect timelines as soon as possible.


Criminal Justice and Law researchers study data to understand trends. The goal is to develop hypotheses regarding some element of the justice system. These hypotheses are then studied further. Generally, there are several aspects of crime data which are collected and studied.


Many crimes are committed by criminal organizations. And there are numberous organizations dedicated to fighting crime. Here we provide information related to crime and anti-crime organizations along with lists of known groups.

Crime as Entertainment

Few topics appeal as much to the public for entertainment reasons than crime. Western society especially revels in watching famed mobsters, horrendous monsters, and notorious thieves get away with their illicit craft.

Everything from movies to TV to books and even video games will be covered here. We will provide reviews and links to popular media.

We will even provide commentary and insights into the ways entertainment impacts society and the efforts of criminal justice professionals to serve the public.


Without criminals, there would be no crime. For better or worse, the world will always have criminals. Some criminals make themselves famous. It could be that this is their goal. Others become examples to avoid and perhaps that is their goal.In these pages, we will include biographies and information related to capital punishment in the United States and the world. Information related to the wrongfully convicted will be included for a couple of great reasons: a) so society can learn from their examples and b) to provide acting and future criminal defense attorneys with fodder for making better cases in court.

Infamous Crimes

James Holmes the face of crime in the 21st Century

Some crimes are so heinous that while people may not recall who committed the act, they can never forget the crime itself. Here we explore such crimes throughout history, both modern and not.

Infamous Criminals

Many criminals from Al Capone to Ted Bundy have made an infamous name for themselves through their criminal acts. Here we explore the most infamous of the infamous criminals to have ever lived.

Wrongly Convicted


In a perfect world, wrongful convictions would never occur. In such cases, many place the criminality on the state. True or not, many people are made infamous through a crime they did not commit only to be forgotten as innocent once exonerated.

Coming soon to Criminal Justice Law International

  1. Crime-related Works– Especially since around the mid-1800s a multitude of crime-related works of literature. In these pages we will review current and provide access to older works as we locate them.
  2. Crime Writers– Just as there have been literary works, there have been influential writers. Their biographies will be included here.
  3. Crime Witnesses – Some witnesses of crime have gained notoriety. In these pages, we will include information related to the event and why this witness played such a key role.

In addition, the following crime surveys and reports will be made available to readers of We will present the entire report along with reviews and reconfigurations of the data for better examination of certain elements.

  • NCVS – National Crime Victimization Survey
  • NIBRS – National Incident Based Reporting System
  • UCR – Uniform Crime Reports

We will be adding crime-specific information as well to include but not limited to the following crimes…

  • Aggravated assault
  • Arson
  • Assault (Simple)
  • Blue Collar
  • Bribery
  • Burglary
  • Computer Crimes
  • Corporate
  • Counterfeiting
  • Crimes against children
  • Crimes against women
  • Crimes against seniors
  • Disorderly conduct
  • Domestic violence
  • Driving under the influence
  • Drug abuse violations
  • Drunkenness
  • Embezzlement
  • Felony
  • Forgery
  • Fraud
  • Gambling
  • Hate Crime
  • Homicide
  • Human trafficking
  • Illegal Occupation
  • Juvenile Crime
  • Kidnapping
  • Larceny-theft
  • Misdemeanor
  • Motor vehicle theft
  • Mutilation
  • Organized Crime
  • Political Crime
  • Prostitution
  • Public Order Crime
  • Prison-Related Crime
  • Rape
  • Robbery
  • Sex offense
  • State Crime
  • Theft
  • Vagrancy
  • Vandalism
  • Violent Crime
  • Whistleblowing
  • White-Collar Crime

Drug War-Related – There is no denying the role the drug war has played in growing organized crime. The laws created the framework, the enforcement built on that, and the judiciary has reinforced the ‘us versus them’ dichotomy needed for such groups to form. Some of the criminal groups we will explore here include…

  • Latin Kings
  • Black Mafia (Philadelphia)
  • Mafia
  • Mexican Mafia
  • Nigerian Crime Groups
  • Policy Kings
  • Russian Mafia
  • Street Gangs
  • Triads
  • And more

Extremism/Fanatical Groups/Terrorism – Terrorism has been treated as something novel, new in recent years, yet the concept dates well into the past. In these pages, we will examine current criminal terrorist groups as well as groups which are no longer active. Some of the current groups include…

  • Eco-Terrorists
  • Hamas
  • Domestic Terrorist Groups


About CJLaw Intl

The purpose of Criminal Justice Law International is to explore issues of importance to Criminal Justice and Law students worldwide while providing tools and resources to enhance education.

Justice is NOT just an American concept.

Justice, social justice, and criminal justice impact everyone on the planet. As the world becomes more globalized, more interconnected via technology and transportation, a need arises to alter the old ways of approaching criminals and crime control.

We hope to be a positive influence on these changes. Learn more About CJLaw Intl.



March 2021

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